What is diabetes insipidus?

diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus, or diabetes insipidus, or oliguria, is a rare condition that causes the production of large amounts of urine that is colorless and odorless, resembling water, and feeling very thirsty despite drinking large amounts of water.

The difference between diabetes and diabetes insipidus:

Temporary diabetes differs from diabetes despite the similarity of their names and the similarity in some symptoms such as excessive thirst and urination. However, diabetes is caused by a deficiency or resistance of the hormone insulin, while the incidence of bulimia is associated with many causes depending on its type.

Temporary diabetes in children:

Diabetes insipidus can occur at any age, but it is more common in adults, affecting 1 in 30,000 children. Symptomatic diabetes occurs in children; Because not enough vasopressin is produced, or the kidneys do not respond to it.

Causes of diabetes insipidus:

There are many factors that cause diabetes insipidus:

Central diabetes insipidus: the most common form, caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland; Thus affecting the manufacture, storage, or secretion of the hormone vasopressin, which makes the kidneys retain fluid, and these cases include:

  • surgery.
  • tumor.
  • head injury;
  • infections.
  • Lack of blood flow to the pituitary gland.
  • Rare hereditary cases.

Renal diabetes insipidus: Kidney dysfunction, and the lack of proper response to the anti-diuretic hormone, and the exact cause is unknown, but the causes can include the following:

  • Urinary tract obstruction.
  • Chronic kidney failure.
  • High levels of calcium in the blood.
  • Low levels of potassium in the blood.
  • Take certain medications such as lithium or tetracycline.

Gestational diabetes insipidus: This type occurs only during pregnancy, either because the placenta produces an enzyme that breaks down the hormone vasopressin, or the increased production of prostaglandins, which are substances that make the kidneys less sensitive to the hormone vasopressin, and most of them are simple cases, and they go away after birth, but they often appear again when they occur pregnancy again.

Primary polydipsia: It occurs due to a defect in the mechanism of regulating the feeling of thirst in the hypothalamus and consequently feeling excessive thirst and excessive urination, and primary polydipsia can occur due to the same causes of central diabetes insipidus, in addition to its association with some mental illnesses and medications.

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus:

  • Symptoms of diabetes insipidus in young adults include:
  • Excessive thirst.
  • Excessive urination, which can reach 20 liters per day in severe cases.
  • Frequent waking up at night to urinate or nocturnal urination.
  • Involuntary bed-wetting.
  • Colorless urine.
  • Decreased urine concentration.
  • Weakness.
  • Muscle aches.
  • Dehydration and its signs are:
  • Excessive thirst, which may amount to drinking more than 4 liters of water per day.
  • idleness.
  • dizziness;
  • confusion.
  • nausea;
  • Unconsciousness.

Symptoms of temporary diabetes in children:

  • Symptoms of diabetes insipidus in children and infants include:
  • High temperature.
  • vomiting;
  • growth retardation;
  • Malnutrition.
  • Weight loss.
  • Dry skin, cold extremities.
  • Excessive urination, or unusual wet diaper.
  • excessive crying
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Frequent awakening during the night to urinate.
  • Involuntary bed-wetting.
  • Drought.

Treatment of diabetes insipidus:

The doctor will treat the cause first, if possible, and then determine whether medications are needed. Treatment for diabetes insipidus depends on the type:

Central diabetes insipidus: Treatment with a synthetic anti-diuretic hormone called desmopressin in the form of a nasal spray, oral tablets, or injection, however, does not cure the disease, but it controls the symptoms of central diabetes insipidus.

Diabetes insipidus: It usually goes away after treating the cause, such as stopping the causative drugs, balancing the amount of calcium or potassium in the body, and treating it with diuretics alone or with aspirin, ibuprofen, or indomethacin.

Primary polydipsia: There is no cure for this condition, but the treatment of mental illness, and reducing the desire to drink fluids by sucking on ice chips or sour candy; To moisten the mouth and increase saliva production, can help reduce symptoms, and if you suffer from night-time urination, your doctor can prescribe a small dose of desmopressin.
Gestational diabetes insipidus: Desmopressin may be recommended in severe cases during pregnancy.

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